Developed to supersede Parallel ATA (PATA), the Serial ATA (SATA) protocol provides higher signaling rates, reduced cable sizes, and optimized data transfers for the connections between host bus adaptors and mass storage devices. SATA is a high-speed serial protocol with a point to point connection between the host and each of its connected devices. It is a layered protocol comprising of a command and application layer, transport layer, link layer, and physical layer.
Starting with SATA GEN1’s data transfer speeds of 1.5 Gbps, the speed has gone up to 6 Gbps in SATA GEN3. The physical layer is responsible for transmitting and receiving serial data streams. It employs gigabit technology, 8b/10b encoding, and Out-Of-Band (OOB)