PCI Express® (PCIe®) is a dominant technology for hardware applications requiring high-speed connectivity between networking, storage, FPGA, and GPGPU boards to servers and desktop systems. It is a robust technology that has evolved over decades to keep up with advancements in throughput and speed for I/O connectivity for computing requirements.
For memory-intensive and high-performance computing, Direct Memory Access (DMA) is an indispensable application. The trend over the years has been to move the DMA controller into devices using a point-to-point bus architecture to reduce latency and increase memory access throughput. A typical DMA operation in PCIe is the transfer of data from the system memory - that the host has