The answer to this question is complex. The SystemC TLM standards were designed for use in a C++ environment using a SystemC library; they were never intended to be used in other languages. But you can still take many of the concepts, terminology, and methodologies from TLM and apply it to many other modeling environments.
It just so happens that the history of the UVM comes from many contributions, and one of those contributions (the AVM) was developed by some of the same people who developed the TLM 1.0 standard for SystemC. They put as much TLM as they could into the AVM, which was transferred to the OVM, and later the UVM.
You can learn about using TLM with UVM is this course: https://verificationacademy.com/sessions/how-tlm-works
I would say that most people today use TLM not just for within the UVM, but to interact with SystemC models.